An imbalance of TNF signalling in the inflammatory milieu generated by meningeal immune cell infiltrates in the subarachnoid space in multiple sclerosis (MS), and its animal model may lead to increased cortical pathology. In order to explore whether this feature may be present from the early stages of MS and may be associated with the clinical outcome, the protein levels of TNF, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were assayed in CSF collected from 122 treatment-naive MS patients and 36 subjects with other neurological conditions at diagnosis. Potential correlations with other CSF cytokines/chemokines and with clinical and imaging parameters at diagnosis (T0) and after 2 years of follow-up (T24) were evaluated. Significantly increased levels of TNF (fold change: 7.739; p < 0.001), sTNF-R1 (fold change: 1.693; p < 0.001) and sTNF-R2 (fold change: 2.189; p < 0.001) were detected in CSF of MS patients compared to the control group at T0. Increased TNF levels in CSF were significantly (p < 0.01) associated with increased EDSS change (r = 0.43), relapses (r = 0.48) and the appearance of white matter lesions (r = 0.49). CSF levels of TNFR1 were associated with cortical lesion volume (r = 0.41) at T0, as well as with new cortical lesions (r = 0.56), whilst no correlation could be found between TNFR2 levels in CSF and clinical or MRI features. Combined correlation and pathway analysis (ingenuity) of the CSF protein pattern associated with TNF expression (encompassing elevated levels of BAFF, IFN-gamma, IL-1 beta, IL-10, IL-8, IL-16, CCL21, haptoglobin and fibrinogen) showed a particular relationship to the interaction between innate and adaptive immune response. The CSF sTNF-R1-associated pattern (encompassing high levels of CXCL13, TWEAK, LIGHT, IL-35, osteopontin, pentraxin-3, sCD163 and chitinase-3-L1) was mainly related to altered T cell and B cell signalling. Finally, the CSF TNFR2-associated pattern (encompassing high CSF levels of IFN-beta, IFN-lambda 2, sIL-6R alpha) was linked to Th cell differentiation and regulatory cytokine signalling. In conclusion, dysregulation of TNF and TNF-R1/2 pathways associates with specific clinical/MRI profiles and can be identified at a very early stage in MS patients, at the time of diagnosis, contributing to the prediction of the disease outcome.

Changes in cerebrospinal fluid balance of TNF and TNF receptors in naïve multiple sclerosis patients: early involvement in compartmentalised intrathecal inflammation

Roberta Magliozzi
;
Francesco Pezzini;Mairi Pucci;Stefania Rossi;Damiano Marastoni;Martina Montagnana;Giuseppe Lippi;Massimiliano Calabrese
2021

Abstract

An imbalance of TNF signalling in the inflammatory milieu generated by meningeal immune cell infiltrates in the subarachnoid space in multiple sclerosis (MS), and its animal model may lead to increased cortical pathology. In order to explore whether this feature may be present from the early stages of MS and may be associated with the clinical outcome, the protein levels of TNF, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were assayed in CSF collected from 122 treatment-naive MS patients and 36 subjects with other neurological conditions at diagnosis. Potential correlations with other CSF cytokines/chemokines and with clinical and imaging parameters at diagnosis (T0) and after 2 years of follow-up (T24) were evaluated. Significantly increased levels of TNF (fold change: 7.739; p < 0.001), sTNF-R1 (fold change: 1.693; p < 0.001) and sTNF-R2 (fold change: 2.189; p < 0.001) were detected in CSF of MS patients compared to the control group at T0. Increased TNF levels in CSF were significantly (p < 0.01) associated with increased EDSS change (r = 0.43), relapses (r = 0.48) and the appearance of white matter lesions (r = 0.49). CSF levels of TNFR1 were associated with cortical lesion volume (r = 0.41) at T0, as well as with new cortical lesions (r = 0.56), whilst no correlation could be found between TNFR2 levels in CSF and clinical or MRI features. Combined correlation and pathway analysis (ingenuity) of the CSF protein pattern associated with TNF expression (encompassing elevated levels of BAFF, IFN-gamma, IL-1 beta, IL-10, IL-8, IL-16, CCL21, haptoglobin and fibrinogen) showed a particular relationship to the interaction between innate and adaptive immune response. The CSF sTNF-R1-associated pattern (encompassing high levels of CXCL13, TWEAK, LIGHT, IL-35, osteopontin, pentraxin-3, sCD163 and chitinase-3-L1) was mainly related to altered T cell and B cell signalling. Finally, the CSF TNFR2-associated pattern (encompassing high CSF levels of IFN-beta, IFN-lambda 2, sIL-6R alpha) was linked to Th cell differentiation and regulatory cytokine signalling. In conclusion, dysregulation of TNF and TNF-R1/2 pathways associates with specific clinical/MRI profiles and can be identified at a very early stage in MS patients, at the time of diagnosis, contributing to the prediction of the disease outcome.
TNF
cerebrospinal fluid
inflammation
multiple sclerosis
pathway analysis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/1047358
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