Since the discovery of the human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1), cellular and animal models have provided invaluable contributions in the knowledge of viral infection, transmission and progression of HTLV-associated diseases. HTLV-1 is the causative agent of the aggressive adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and inflammatory diseases such as the HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Cell models contribute to defining the role of HTLV proteins, as well as the mechanisms of cell-to-cell transmission of the virus. Otherwise, selected and engineered animal models are currently applied to recapitulate in vivo the HTLV-1 associated pathogenesis and to verify the effectiveness of viral therapy and host immune response. Here we review the current cell models for studying virus-host interaction, cellular restriction factors and cell pathway deregulation mediated by HTLV products. We recapitulate the most effective animal models applied to investigate the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-associated diseases such as transgenic and humanized mice, rabbit and monkey models. Finally, we summarize the studies on STLV and BLV, two closely related HTLV-1 viruses in animals. The most recent anticancer and HAM/TSP therapies are also discussed in view of the most reliable experimental models that may accelerate the translation from the experimental findings to effective therapies in infected patients.

HTLV-1 infection and pathogenesis: new insights from cellular and animal models

Romanelli, Maria Grazia
2021

Abstract

Since the discovery of the human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1), cellular and animal models have provided invaluable contributions in the knowledge of viral infection, transmission and progression of HTLV-associated diseases. HTLV-1 is the causative agent of the aggressive adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and inflammatory diseases such as the HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Cell models contribute to defining the role of HTLV proteins, as well as the mechanisms of cell-to-cell transmission of the virus. Otherwise, selected and engineered animal models are currently applied to recapitulate in vivo the HTLV-1 associated pathogenesis and to verify the effectiveness of viral therapy and host immune response. Here we review the current cell models for studying virus-host interaction, cellular restriction factors and cell pathway deregulation mediated by HTLV products. We recapitulate the most effective animal models applied to investigate the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-associated diseases such as transgenic and humanized mice, rabbit and monkey models. Finally, we summarize the studies on STLV and BLV, two closely related HTLV-1 viruses in animals. The most recent anticancer and HAM/TSP therapies are also discussed in view of the most reliable experimental models that may accelerate the translation from the experimental findings to effective therapies in infected patients.
ATL
BLV
CIITA
CRISPR
HAM/TSP
HBZ
HTLV
NF-κB
STLV
Tax
humanized mice
restriction factors
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/1047357
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