New Findings: What is the topic of this review? This narrative review explores past and recent findings on the mechanical determinants of energy cost during human locomotion, obtained by using a mechanical approach based on König's theorem (Fenn's approach). What advances does it highlight? Developments in analytical methods and their applications allow a better understanding of the mechanical–bioenergetic interaction. Recent advances include the determination of ‘frictional’ internal work; the association between tendon work and apparent efficiency; a better understanding of the role of energy recovery and internal work in pathological gait (amputees, stroke and obesity); and a comprehensive analysis of human locomotion in (simulated) low gravity conditions. Abstract: During locomotion, muscles use metabolic energy to produce mechanical work (in a more or less efficient way), and energetics and mechanics can be considered as two sides of the same coin, the latter being investigated to understand the former. A mechanical approach based on König's theorem (Fenn's approach) has proved to be a useful tool to elucidate the determinants of the energy cost of locomotion (e.g., the pendulum-like model of walking and the bouncing model of running) and has resulted in many advances in this field. During the past 60 years, this approach has been refined and applied to explore the determinants of energy cost and efficiency in a variety of conditions (e.g., low gravity, unsteady speed). This narrative review aims to summarize current knowledge of the role that mechanical work has played in our understanding of energy cost to date, and to underline how recent developments in analytical methods and their applications in specific locomotion modalities (on a gradient, at low gravity and in unsteady conditions) and in pathological gaits (asymmetric gait pathologies, obese subjects and in the elderly) could continue to push this understanding further. The recent in vivo quantification of new aspects that should be included in the assessment of mechanical work (e.g., frictional internal work and elastic contribution) deserves future research that would improve our knowledge of the mechanical–bioenergetic interaction during human locomotion, as well as in sport science and space exploration. © 2021 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2021 The Physiological Society

Mechanical work as a (key) determinant of energy cost in human locomotion: recent findings and future directions

Monte, Andrea;Zamparo, Paola
2021

Abstract

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? This narrative review explores past and recent findings on the mechanical determinants of energy cost during human locomotion, obtained by using a mechanical approach based on König's theorem (Fenn's approach). What advances does it highlight? Developments in analytical methods and their applications allow a better understanding of the mechanical–bioenergetic interaction. Recent advances include the determination of ‘frictional’ internal work; the association between tendon work and apparent efficiency; a better understanding of the role of energy recovery and internal work in pathological gait (amputees, stroke and obesity); and a comprehensive analysis of human locomotion in (simulated) low gravity conditions. Abstract: During locomotion, muscles use metabolic energy to produce mechanical work (in a more or less efficient way), and energetics and mechanics can be considered as two sides of the same coin, the latter being investigated to understand the former. A mechanical approach based on König's theorem (Fenn's approach) has proved to be a useful tool to elucidate the determinants of the energy cost of locomotion (e.g., the pendulum-like model of walking and the bouncing model of running) and has resulted in many advances in this field. During the past 60 years, this approach has been refined and applied to explore the determinants of energy cost and efficiency in a variety of conditions (e.g., low gravity, unsteady speed). This narrative review aims to summarize current knowledge of the role that mechanical work has played in our understanding of energy cost to date, and to underline how recent developments in analytical methods and their applications in specific locomotion modalities (on a gradient, at low gravity and in unsteady conditions) and in pathological gaits (asymmetric gait pathologies, obese subjects and in the elderly) could continue to push this understanding further. The recent in vivo quantification of new aspects that should be included in the assessment of mechanical work (e.g., frictional internal work and elastic contribution) deserves future research that would improve our knowledge of the mechanical–bioenergetic interaction during human locomotion, as well as in sport science and space exploration. © 2021 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2021 The Physiological Society
apparent efficiency
gradient locomotion
low gravity
mechanical energy
pathological gait
unsteady locomotion
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1045709
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 8
  • Scopus 15
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 13
social impact