Diabetes mellitus represents a growing concern, both for public economy and global health. In fact, it can lead to insidious macrovascular and microvascular complications, impacting negatively on patients' quality of life. Diabetic patients often present diabetic kidney disease (DKD), a burdensome complication that can be silent for years. The average time of onset of kidney impairment in diabetic patients is about 7-10 years. The clinical impact of DKD is dangerous not only for the risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and therefore to renal replacement therapies, but also because of the associated increase in cardiovascular events. An early recognition of risk factors for DKD progression can be decisive in decreasing morbidity and mortality. DKD presents patient-related, clinician-related, and system-related issues. All these problems are translated into therapeutic inertia, which is defined as the failure to initiate or intensify therapy on time according to evidence-based clinical guidelines. Therapeutic inertia can be resolved by a multidisciplinary pool of healthcare experts. The timing of intensification of treatment, the transition to the best therapy, and dietetic strategies must be provided by a multidisciplinary team, driving the patients to the glycemic target and delaying or overcoming DKD-related complications. A timely nephrological evaluation can also guarantee adequate information to choose the right renal replacement therapy at the right time in case of renal impairment progression.

Kidney Disease in Diabetic Patients: From Pathophysiology to Pharmacological Aspects with a Focus on Therapeutic Inertia

Trifirò, Gianluca
2021

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus represents a growing concern, both for public economy and global health. In fact, it can lead to insidious macrovascular and microvascular complications, impacting negatively on patients' quality of life. Diabetic patients often present diabetic kidney disease (DKD), a burdensome complication that can be silent for years. The average time of onset of kidney impairment in diabetic patients is about 7-10 years. The clinical impact of DKD is dangerous not only for the risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and therefore to renal replacement therapies, but also because of the associated increase in cardiovascular events. An early recognition of risk factors for DKD progression can be decisive in decreasing morbidity and mortality. DKD presents patient-related, clinician-related, and system-related issues. All these problems are translated into therapeutic inertia, which is defined as the failure to initiate or intensify therapy on time according to evidence-based clinical guidelines. Therapeutic inertia can be resolved by a multidisciplinary pool of healthcare experts. The timing of intensification of treatment, the transition to the best therapy, and dietetic strategies must be provided by a multidisciplinary team, driving the patients to the glycemic target and delaying or overcoming DKD-related complications. A timely nephrological evaluation can also guarantee adequate information to choose the right renal replacement therapy at the right time in case of renal impairment progression.
antidiabetic drugs; diabetes; diabetic kidney disease; diabetic nephropathy; end-stage renal disease; therapeutic inertia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/1045693
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