This systematic review aims to understand better the translation of laparoscopic psychomotor skills, acquired in dry lab training, into a direct patient benefit in actual clinical practice in the operating room. The review was performed according to PRISMA guidance, searching database-specific filters for controlled trials: 'laparoscopy', 'simulator', 'surgical training', 'dry lab', 'psychomotor skills'. We included only RCTs in which the study population was the surgical trainee or novice surgeon with no prior simulation training, and the intervention was simulation training in laparoscopic surgery, regardless of subspecialty. Ten studies were included in this systematic review. The mean performance score was higher compared to the control groups. Fewer errors were noted in the intervention groups. No clinical patient outcomes (mortality, morbidity, quality of life) were addressed in these studies. All the trials were at high risk of bias. Training outside the operating room may lead to better surgical performance and less operative time. Nevertheless, additional studies with better designs are needed to provide more robust evidence.
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