Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a chronic condition characterized by hepatic fat accumulation combined with underlying metabolic dysregulation. Having evolved from the previous term of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the term MAFLD more closely implicates the presence of overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes, or metabolic dysregulation as essential pathogenic factors, leading to better identification of individuals with this metabolic liver disease. Low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and intestinal dysbiosis are also involved in its pathogenesis. MAFLD is not only associated with liver-related complications, but also with adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Further studies are needed to assess whether the newly proposed definition of MAFLD is more accurate than the NAFLD in predicting the adverse liver-related and extrahepatic outcomes.
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