Background and Objective To assess the efficacy of a Risk-Adapted Ablative Radiotherapy (RAdAR) approach, after intensive induction chemotherapy, in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Material and Methods Patients with LAPC who received RAdAR following induction chemotherapy from January 2017 to December 2019 were included in this observational study. The RAdAR approach consisted of an anatomy- and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB)-based dose prescription strategy. RAdAR was delivered with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SAbR), administering 30 Gy in 5 fractions to the tumor volume (PTVt) and 50 Gy SIB (BED10 100 Gy) to the vascular involvement, or with (hypo-)fractionated ablative radiotherapy (HART) prescribing 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions to the PTVt, with a vascular SIB of 78.4 Gy (BED10 100 Gy). Primary end points were freedom from local progression (FFLP), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS). Results Sixty-four LAPC patients were included. Induction chemotherapy consisted of gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel in 60.9% and FOLFIRINOX in 39.1% of cases. SAbR was used in 52 (81.2%) patients, and HART in 12 (18.8%). After RAdAR, surgery was performed in 17 (26.6%) patients. Median follow-up was 16.1 months. Overall local control (LC) rate was 78.1%, with no difference between resected and non-resected patients (2-year FFLP 75.3% vs 56.4%; p = 0.112). Median OS and PFS were 29.7 months and 8.7 months, respectively, for the entire cohort. Resected patients had a better median OS (not reached versus 26.1 months; p = 0.0001) and PFS (19 versus 5.6 months; p < 0.0001) compared to non-resected patients. In non-resected patients, no significant difference was found between SAbR and HART for median FFLP (28.1 versus 18.5 months; p = 0.614), OS (27.4 versus 25.3 months; p = 0.624), and PFS (5.7 versus 4.3 months; p = 0.486). One patient (1.6%) experienced acute grade 4 gastro-intestinal bleeding. No other acute or late grade >= 3 toxicities were observed. Conclusions The RAdAR approach, following intensive induction chemotherapy, is an effective radiation treatment strategy for selected LAPC patients, representing a promising therapeutic option in a multimodality treatment regimen.
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