Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) are a recognized risk factor for stroke. This relationship represents one aspect of the debated `Hcy hypothesis'. Elevated Hcy may be an independent and treatable cause of atherosclerosis and thrombotic vascular diseases. Further observations indicate that proper dietary supplementation with B-vitamins decreases total plasma Hcy concentrations and may be an effective intervention for stroke prevention. Metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency is a nutritional determinant of total Hcy and stroke risk. Genetic factors may link B vitamins with stroke severity due to the impact on Hcy metabolism of polymorphism in the genes coding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, methionine-synthase, methionine synthase reductase, and cystathionine β-synthase. Several meta-analyses of large randomized controlled trials exist. However, they are not completely in agreement about B vitamins' role, particularly folic acid levels, vitamin B12, and B6, in lowering the homocysteine concentrations in people at high stroke risk. A very complex relationship exists between Hcy and B vitamins, and several factors appear to modify the preventive effects of B vitamins in stroke. This review highlights the regulating factors of the active role of B vitamins active in stroke prevention. Also, inputs for further large, well-designed studies, for specific, particularly sensitive subgroups are given.

The role of B vitamins in stroke prevention

Chirumbolo, Salvatore;
2022

Abstract

Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) are a recognized risk factor for stroke. This relationship represents one aspect of the debated `Hcy hypothesis'. Elevated Hcy may be an independent and treatable cause of atherosclerosis and thrombotic vascular diseases. Further observations indicate that proper dietary supplementation with B-vitamins decreases total plasma Hcy concentrations and may be an effective intervention for stroke prevention. Metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency is a nutritional determinant of total Hcy and stroke risk. Genetic factors may link B vitamins with stroke severity due to the impact on Hcy metabolism of polymorphism in the genes coding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, methionine-synthase, methionine synthase reductase, and cystathionine β-synthase. Several meta-analyses of large randomized controlled trials exist. However, they are not completely in agreement about B vitamins' role, particularly folic acid levels, vitamin B12, and B6, in lowering the homocysteine concentrations in people at high stroke risk. A very complex relationship exists between Hcy and B vitamins, and several factors appear to modify the preventive effects of B vitamins in stroke. This review highlights the regulating factors of the active role of B vitamins active in stroke prevention. Also, inputs for further large, well-designed studies, for specific, particularly sensitive subgroups are given.
B vitamins
cobalamin
folic acid
homocysteine
hyperhomocysteinemia
nutrients
pyridoxine
riboflavin
sources
stroke
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1042031
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