The present study investigated whether a difference exists in reactive and proactive control for sport considered open or closed skills dominated. Sixteen young (11-12 years) athletes (eight soccer players and eight swimmers) were asked to be engaged into two games competitions that required either a reactive and a proactive type of control. By means of kinematic (i.e. movement time and duration) and dynamic analysis through the force platform (i.e. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments, APAs), we evaluated the level of ability and stability in reacting and anticipating actions. Results indicated that soccer players outperformed swimmers by showing higher stability and a smaller number of falls during the competition where proactive control was mainly required. Soccer players were able to reach that result by anticipating actions through well-modulated APAs. On the contrary, during the competition where reactive control was mainly required, performances were comparable between groups. Therefore, the development of specific action control is already established at 11-12 years of age and is enhanced by the training specificity.

Anticipatory and pre-planned actions: A comparison between young soccer players and swimmers

Nardello, Francesca;Bertucco, Matteo;Cesari, Paola
2021

Abstract

The present study investigated whether a difference exists in reactive and proactive control for sport considered open or closed skills dominated. Sixteen young (11-12 years) athletes (eight soccer players and eight swimmers) were asked to be engaged into two games competitions that required either a reactive and a proactive type of control. By means of kinematic (i.e. movement time and duration) and dynamic analysis through the force platform (i.e. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments, APAs), we evaluated the level of ability and stability in reacting and anticipating actions. Results indicated that soccer players outperformed swimmers by showing higher stability and a smaller number of falls during the competition where proactive control was mainly required. Soccer players were able to reach that result by anticipating actions through well-modulated APAs. On the contrary, during the competition where reactive control was mainly required, performances were comparable between groups. Therefore, the development of specific action control is already established at 11-12 years of age and is enhanced by the training specificity.
Swimming
Sports
Musculoskeletal mechanics
Games
Reaction time
Butterworth filters
Anthropometry
Children
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1041976
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