Background: Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB) is a rare mycosis affecting almost exclusively immunocompetent subjects.Methods: We describe a case of GIB caused by Basidiobolus ranarum in a 25-year-old Italian immunocompetent man resident in Ireland who presented a 2-month history of epigastric pain. Suspecting colon cancer he underwent a right hemicolectomy subsequently leading to a diagnosis of GIB by means of molecular biology. After surgery a 9-month therapy with itraconazole was employed with a good outcome. A review of medical literature regarding GIB cases published in the period 1964-2017 is presented.Results: One-hundred and two cases of GIB were included in this analysis. The disease was observed predominantly in male gender (74.5%) and children (41.2%). Abdominal pain was the single most common complaint (86.3%) followed by fever (40.2%) and evidence of an abdominal mass (30.4%). Peripheral blood eosinophilia was detected in 85.7% of cases. Most of the patients were diagnosed in Saudi Arabia (37.2%) followed by USA (21.6%) and Iran (20.6%). Surgery plus antifungal therapy was employed in the majority of patients (77.5%). An unfavourable outcome was documented globally in 18.6% of patients.Conclusions: GIB seems to be an emerging intestinal mycosis among immunocompetent patients living in the Middle East and Arizona.
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