In murine and bovine photoreceptors, guanylate cyclase activating-protein 2 (GCAP2) activates retinal guanylate cyclases (GC) at low Ca2+ levels, thus contributing to the Ca2+/cGMP negative feedback on the cyclase together with its paralog GCAP1, which has the same function but different Ca2+ sensitivity. In humans, a GCAP2 missense mutation (G157R) has been associated with inherited-retinal degeneration (IRD) via an unknown molecular mechanism. Here, we characterized the biochemical properties of human GCAP2 and the G157R variant, focusing on its dimerization and the Ca2+/Mg2+-binding processes in the presence or absence of N-terminal myristoylation. We found that human GCAP2 and its bovine/murine orthologs significantly differ in terms of oligomeric properties, cation binding, and GC regulation. Myristoylated GCAP2 endothermically binds up to three Mg2+ ions with high affinity and forms a compact dimer that may reversibly dissociate in the presence of Ca2+. Conversely, non-myristoylated GCAP2 does not bind Mg2+ over the physiological range, and remains as a monomer in the absence of Ca2+. Both myristoylated and non-myristoylated GCAP2 bind Ca2+ with high affinity. At odds with GCAP1 and independently of myristoylation, human GCAP2 does not significantly activate retinal GC1 in a Ca2+-dependent fashion. The IRD-associated G157R variant is characterized by a partly misfolded, molten globule-like conformation with reduced affinity for cations, and is prone to form aggregates, likely mediated by hydrophobic interactions. Our findings suggest that GCAP2 in human photoreceptors might be mostly implicated in processes other than phototransduction, and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for G157R-associated IRD.

Molecular properties of human guanylate cyclase-activating protein 2 (GCAP2) and its retinal dystrophy-associated variant G157R

Avesani, Anna;Marino, Valerio;Zanzoni, Serena;Dell'Orco, Daniele
2021-01-01

Abstract

In murine and bovine photoreceptors, guanylate cyclase activating-protein 2 (GCAP2) activates retinal guanylate cyclases (GC) at low Ca2+ levels, thus contributing to the Ca2+/cGMP negative feedback on the cyclase together with its paralog GCAP1, which has the same function but different Ca2+ sensitivity. In humans, a GCAP2 missense mutation (G157R) has been associated with inherited-retinal degeneration (IRD) via an unknown molecular mechanism. Here, we characterized the biochemical properties of human GCAP2 and the G157R variant, focusing on its dimerization and the Ca2+/Mg2+-binding processes in the presence or absence of N-terminal myristoylation. We found that human GCAP2 and its bovine/murine orthologs significantly differ in terms of oligomeric properties, cation binding, and GC regulation. Myristoylated GCAP2 endothermically binds up to three Mg2+ ions with high affinity and forms a compact dimer that may reversibly dissociate in the presence of Ca2+. Conversely, non-myristoylated GCAP2 does not bind Mg2+ over the physiological range, and remains as a monomer in the absence of Ca2+. Both myristoylated and non-myristoylated GCAP2 bind Ca2+ with high affinity. At odds with GCAP1 and independently of myristoylation, human GCAP2 does not significantly activate retinal GC1 in a Ca2+-dependent fashion. The IRD-associated G157R variant is characterized by a partly misfolded, molten globule-like conformation with reduced affinity for cations, and is prone to form aggregates, likely mediated by hydrophobic interactions. Our findings suggest that GCAP2 in human photoreceptors might be mostly implicated in processes other than phototransduction, and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for G157R-associated IRD.
GCAP
GUCA1B
calcium-binding proteins
cyclic GMP (cGMP)
guanylate cyclase (guanylyl cyclase)
neurodegenerative disease
phototransduction
retina
retinal degeneration
vision
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1041471
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