Simple SummaryThe inhibition of angiogenesis, relying on the use of drugs targeting the VEGF signaling pathway, has become one of the main strategies for cancer treatment. However, the intrinsic and acquired resistance to this type of therapy limit its efficacy. Thus, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is urgently needed. The resistance to anti-angiogenic treatment often occurs through the activation of alternative VEGF independent signaling pathways and recruitment of bone marrow-derived pro-angiogenic cells in the tumor microenvironment. HOX genes are key regulators of embryonic development, also involved in angiogenesis and in cancer progression. HOXB9 upregulation occurs in many types of cancer and it has been identified as a critical transcription factor involved in tumour resistance to anti-angiogenic drugs. Indeed, HOXB9 modulates the expression of alternative pro-angiogenic secreted factors in the tumour microenvironment leading tumor escape from the anti-angiogenic treatments. Hence, HOXB9 could serves as a novel therapeutic target to overcome the resistance to anti-angiogenic therapies.Angiogenesis is one of the hallmarks of cancer, and the inhibition of pro-angiogenic factors and or their receptors has become a primary strategy for cancer therapy. However, despite promising results in preclinical studies, the majority of patients either do not respond to these treatments or, after an initial period of response, they develop resistance to anti-angiogenic agents. Thus, the identification of a novel therapeutic target is urgently needed. Multiple mechanisms of resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy have been identified, including the upregulation of alternative angiogenic pathways and the recruitment of pro-angiogenic myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment. Homeobox containing (HOX) genes are master regulators of embryonic development playing a pivotal role during both embryonic vasculogenesis and pathological angiogenesis in adults. The importance of HOX genes during cancer progression has been reported in many studies. In this review we will give a brief description of the HOX genes and their involvement in angiogenesis and cancer, with particular emphasis on HOXB9 as a possible novel target for anti-angiogenic therapy. HOXB9 upregulation has been reported in many types of cancers and it has been identified as a critical transcription factor involved in resistance to anti-angiogenic drugs.
|Titolo:||HOX Genes Family and Cancer: A Novel Role for Homeobox B9 in the Resistance to Anti-Angiogenic Therapies|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 Articolo in Rivista|