It is widely accepted that metabolic changes associated with training are influenced by a person's genetic background. In this review, we explore the polymorphisms underlying interindividual variability in response to training of weight loss and muscle mass increase in obese individuals, with or without lymphedema, and in normal-weight subjects. We searched PubMed for articles in English published up to May 2019 using the following keywords: (((physical training[Title/Abstract] OR sport activity[Title/Abstract]) AND predisposition[Title/Abstract]) AND polymorphism [Title/Abstract]). We identified 38 single-nucleotide polymorphisms that may modulate the genetic adaptive response to training. The identification of genetic marker(s) that improve the beneficial effects of training may in perspective make it possible to assess training programs, which in combination with dietary intervention can optimize body weight reduction in obese subjects, with or without lymphedema. This is particularly important for patients with lymphedema because obesity can worsen the clinical status, and therefore, a personalized approach that could reduce obesity would be fundamental in the clinical management of lymphedema.
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