It is now well established that the healthy bronchial tree contains a microbiome distinct from that of the upper respiratory tract and that the lung microbiome may be dysregulated in individuals with a chronic respiratory disease, such as asthma. In addition, after birth, gut microbes interact with the host tissue, especially with the lymphatic tissue, thereby guaranteeing efficient immune activation. This review focuses on the available literature on the relationships between the gut microbiome, immune function and asthma in childhood, as well as the therapeutic strategies aimed at acting on the modulation of the microbiome.
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