PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of mimickers of large vessel vasculitis (LVV), by the main presenting manifestation, i.e., systemic, vascular, and cranial manifestations.RECENT FINDINGS: The main differential diagnoses in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TAK) presenting with systemic manifestations (i.e., fever, anorexia, weight loss, night sweats, arthralgia/myalgia, and/or increased inflammatory indexes) are neoplastic, infectious, or other inflammatory conditions. In patients with vascular manifestations (such as peripheral ischemia, vascular stenoses, or aneurysms), atherosclerosis and non-inflammatory vascular diseases should be excluded. In those presenting with predominant cranial symptoms (i.e., temporal headache, jaw claudication, scalp tenderness, transient or permanent vision loss), other causes of headache, cerebrovascular accidents, optic neuropathy, and neuromuscular syndromes need to be considered. The diagnosis of LVV maybe challenging, especially when patients present with atypical or incomplete clinical forms. In these cases, a multidisciplinary approach is strongly recommended.
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