Diabetes mellitus is a very common chronic disease with progressively increasing prevalence. Besides the well-known autoimmune and inflammatory pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, in many people, metabolic changes and inappropriate lifestyle favor a subtle chronic inflammatory state that contributes to development of insulin resistance and progressive loss of β-cell function and mass, eventually resulting in metabolic syndrome or overt type 2 diabetes. In this paper, we review the anti-inflammatory effects of the extract of Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort, SJW) and its main active ingredients firstly in representative pathological situations on inflammatory basis and then in pancreatic β cells and in obese or diabetic animal models. The simultaneous and long-lasting inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)/c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways involved in pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell dysfunction/death and insulin resistance make SJW particularly suitable for both preventive and therapeutic use in metabolic diseases. Hindrance of inflammatory cytokine signaling is likely dependent on the hyperforin content of SJW extract, but recent data reveal that hypericin can also exert relevant protective effects, mediated by activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase cAMP-dependent (PKA)/adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, against high-fat-diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. Actually, the mechanisms of action of the two main components of SJW appear complementary, strengthening the efficacy of the plant extract. Careful quantitative analysis of SJW components and suitable dosage, with monitoring of possible drug-drug interaction in a context of remarkable tolerability, are easily achievable pre-requisites for forthcoming clinical applications.

Protective role of St. John's Wort and its components hyperforin and hypericin against diabetes through Inhibition of inflammatory signaling: evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies

Menegazzi, Marta
2020-01-01

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a very common chronic disease with progressively increasing prevalence. Besides the well-known autoimmune and inflammatory pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, in many people, metabolic changes and inappropriate lifestyle favor a subtle chronic inflammatory state that contributes to development of insulin resistance and progressive loss of β-cell function and mass, eventually resulting in metabolic syndrome or overt type 2 diabetes. In this paper, we review the anti-inflammatory effects of the extract of Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort, SJW) and its main active ingredients firstly in representative pathological situations on inflammatory basis and then in pancreatic β cells and in obese or diabetic animal models. The simultaneous and long-lasting inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)/c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways involved in pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell dysfunction/death and insulin resistance make SJW particularly suitable for both preventive and therapeutic use in metabolic diseases. Hindrance of inflammatory cytokine signaling is likely dependent on the hyperforin content of SJW extract, but recent data reveal that hypericin can also exert relevant protective effects, mediated by activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase cAMP-dependent (PKA)/adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, against high-fat-diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. Actually, the mechanisms of action of the two main components of SJW appear complementary, strengthening the efficacy of the plant extract. Careful quantitative analysis of SJW components and suitable dosage, with monitoring of possible drug-drug interaction in a context of remarkable tolerability, are easily achievable pre-requisites for forthcoming clinical applications.
2020
St. John’s Wort
cytokines
diabetes
hyperforin
hypericin
inflammatory signaling
insulin resistance
metabolic syndrome
obesity
pancreatic beta cells
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
ijms-21-08108.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: CC BY 4.0 publisher's version
Tipologia: Versione dell'editore
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 1.19 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.19 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1028910
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 7
  • Scopus 29
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 27
social impact