To date, the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection is increasing worldwide and represents a primary healthcare emergency. Although the infection can be asymptomatic, several cases develop severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) characterized by high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, primarily interleukin (IL)-6. Based on available data, the severity of ARDS and serum levels of IL-6 are key determinants for the prognosis. In this scenario, available in vitro and in vivo data suggested that myo-inositol is able to increase the synthesis and function of the surfactant phosphatidylinositol, acting on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-regulated signaling, with amelioration of both immune system and oxygenation at the bronchoalveolar level. In addition, myo-inositol has been found able to decrease the levels of IL-6 in several experimental settings, due to an effect on the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)-X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) and on the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways. In this scenario, treatment with myo-inositol may be able to reduce IL-6 dependent inflammatory response and improve oxygenation in patients with severe ARDS by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, the action of myo-inositol on IRE1 endonuclease activity may also inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2, as was reported for the respiratory syncytial virus. Since the available data are extremely limited, if this potential therapeutic approach will be considered valid in the clinical practice, the necessary future investigations should aim to identify the best dose, administration route (oral, intravenous and/or aerosol nebulization), and cluster(s) of patients which may get beneficial effects from this treatment.
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