The association between acute infections and cardiac injury, including myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction, is now well established. We have performed a systematic literature review for analyzing the results of epidemiological studies that measured cardiac troponins (cTn) in patients with Influenza virus infections. Overall, 14 articles were finally identified and analyzed. Taken together, the results of the scientific literature suggest that cTn elevation is a relatively rare phenomenon in patients with Influenza virus infection, with frequency generally comprised between 0 and 33%, more likely in elderly patients with significant comorbidities. In patients with modest cTn elevations, this phenomenon is apparently self-limited, transient and reversible, and especially involves patients with Influenza A (especially H1N1). In the minority of patients exhibiting an abrupt appearance of cardiovascular symptoms and concomitant elevation of cTn values, the relative increase of this biomarker reflects the presence of an underlying cardiac injury, that can be either myocarditis or an acute ischemic episode. Enhanced cTn values can also be more frequently observed in Influenza patients with complicated disease, in those developing acute respiratory distress syndrome and cardiac dysfunction, as well as in those at higher risk of death. cTn measurement shall be considered a valuable option in all patients developing acute cardiovascular symptoms during Influenza virus infections, as well as in those bearing cardiac or extra-cardiac comorbidities who bear a higher risk of complications.
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