Reduced activation of energy metabolism increases adiposity in humans and other mammals. Thus, exploring dietary and molecular mechanisms able to improve energy metabolism is of paramount medical importance, as such mechanisms can be leveraged as a therapy for obesity and related disorders. Here, we show that a designer protein-deprived diet enriched in free essential amino acids can i) promote the brown fat thermogenic program and fatty acid oxidation, ii) stimulate uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-independent respiration in subcutaneous white fat, iii) change the gut microbiota composition, and iv) prevent and reverse obesity and dysregulated glucose homeostasis in multiple mouse models, prolonging the healthy lifespan. These effects are independent of unbalanced amino acid ratio, energy consumption, and intestinal calorie absorption. A brown fat-specific activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 seems involved in the diet-induced beneficial effects, as also strengthened by in vitro experiments. Hence, our results suggest that brown and white fat may be targets of specific amino acids to control UCP1-dependent and -independent thermogenesis, thereby contributing to the improvement of metabolic health.

Manipulation of Dietary Amino Acids Prevents and Reverses Obesity in Mice Through Multiple Mechanisms That Modulate Energy Homeostasis

Pino, Annachiara;Decimo, Ilaria;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Reduced activation of energy metabolism increases adiposity in humans and other mammals. Thus, exploring dietary and molecular mechanisms able to improve energy metabolism is of paramount medical importance, as such mechanisms can be leveraged as a therapy for obesity and related disorders. Here, we show that a designer protein-deprived diet enriched in free essential amino acids can i) promote the brown fat thermogenic program and fatty acid oxidation, ii) stimulate uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-independent respiration in subcutaneous white fat, iii) change the gut microbiota composition, and iv) prevent and reverse obesity and dysregulated glucose homeostasis in multiple mouse models, prolonging the healthy lifespan. These effects are independent of unbalanced amino acid ratio, energy consumption, and intestinal calorie absorption. A brown fat-specific activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 seems involved in the diet-induced beneficial effects, as also strengthened by in vitro experiments. Hence, our results suggest that brown and white fat may be targets of specific amino acids to control UCP1-dependent and -independent thermogenesis, thereby contributing to the improvement of metabolic health.
2020
MITOCHONDRIAL BIOGENESIS; INDUCED THERMOGENESIS; ADIPOSE-TISSUE; L-ARGININE; RESTRICTION; FAT; METABOLISM; MICROBIOTA; ABLATION; PROTEIN
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1023446
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