The 2018 consensus statement on the classification of tremors proposes a two-axis categorization scheme based on clinical features and etiology. It also defines "isolated" and "combined" tremor syndromes depending on whether tremor is the sole clinical manifestation or is associated with other neurological or systemic signs. This syndromic approach provides a guide to investigate the underlying etiology of tremors, either genetic or acquired. Several genetic defects have been proven to cause tremor disorders, including autosomal dominant and recessive, X-linked, and mitochondrial diseases, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Furthermore, some tremor syndromes are recognized in individuals with a positive family history, but their genetic confirmation is pending. Although most genetic tremor disorders show a combined clinical picture, there are some distinctive conditions in which tremor may precede the appearance of other neurological signs by years or remain the prominent manifestation throughout the disease course, previously leading to misdiagnosis as essential tremor (ET). Advances in the knowledge of genetically determined tremors may have been hampered by the inclusion of heterogeneous entities in previous studies on ET. The recent classification of tremors therefore aims to provide more consistent clinical data for deconstructing the genetic basis of tremor syndromes in the next-generation and long-read sequencing era. This review outlines the wide spectrum of tremor disorders with defined or presumed genetic etiology, both isolated and combined, unraveling diagnostic clues of these conditions and focusing mainly on ET-like phenotypes. Furthermore, we suggest a phenotype-to-genotype algorithm to support clinicians in identifying tremor syndromes and guiding genetic investigations.

Isolated and combined genetic tremor syndromes: a critical appraisal based on the 2018 MDS criteria

Magrinelli, Francesca;Tinazzi, Michele;
2020-01-01

Abstract

The 2018 consensus statement on the classification of tremors proposes a two-axis categorization scheme based on clinical features and etiology. It also defines "isolated" and "combined" tremor syndromes depending on whether tremor is the sole clinical manifestation or is associated with other neurological or systemic signs. This syndromic approach provides a guide to investigate the underlying etiology of tremors, either genetic or acquired. Several genetic defects have been proven to cause tremor disorders, including autosomal dominant and recessive, X-linked, and mitochondrial diseases, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Furthermore, some tremor syndromes are recognized in individuals with a positive family history, but their genetic confirmation is pending. Although most genetic tremor disorders show a combined clinical picture, there are some distinctive conditions in which tremor may precede the appearance of other neurological signs by years or remain the prominent manifestation throughout the disease course, previously leading to misdiagnosis as essential tremor (ET). Advances in the knowledge of genetically determined tremors may have been hampered by the inclusion of heterogeneous entities in previous studies on ET. The recent classification of tremors therefore aims to provide more consistent clinical data for deconstructing the genetic basis of tremor syndromes in the next-generation and long-read sequencing era. This review outlines the wide spectrum of tremor disorders with defined or presumed genetic etiology, both isolated and combined, unraveling diagnostic clues of these conditions and focusing mainly on ET-like phenotypes. Furthermore, we suggest a phenotype-to-genotype algorithm to support clinicians in identifying tremor syndromes and guiding genetic investigations.
2020
diagnosis
essential tremor
genetics
movement disorders
tremor
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1023379
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