Primary Hyperoxaluria type I (PH1) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the AGXT gene encoding alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), a liver enzyme involved in the detoxification of glyoxylate, the failure of which results in accumulation of oxalate and kidney stones formation. The role of protein misfolding in the AGT deficit caused by most PH1-causing mutations is increasingly being recognized. In addition, the genetic background in which a mutation occurs is emerging as a critical risk factor for disease onset and/or severity. Based on these premises, in this study we have analyzed the clinical, biochemical and cellular effects of the p.Ile56Asn mutation, recently described in a PH1 patient, as a function of the residue at position 11, a hot-spot for both polymorphic (p.Pro11Leu) and pathogenic (p.Pro11Arg) mutations. We have found that the p.Ile56Asn mutation induces a structural defect mostly related to the apo-form of AGT. The effects are more pronounced when the substitution of Ile56 is combined with the p.Pro11Leu and, at higher degree, the p.Pro11Arg mutation. As compared with the non-pathogenic forms, AGT variants display reduced expression and activity in mammalian cells. Vitamin B6, a currently approved treatment for PH1, can overcome the effects of the p.Ile56Asn mutation only when it is associated with Pro at position 11. Our results provide a first proof that the genetic background influences the effects of PH1-causing mutations and the responsiveness to treatment and suggest that molecular and cellular studies can integrate clinical data to identify the best therapeutic strategy for PH1 patients.

The ILE56 mutation on different genetic backgrounds of alanine: Glyoxylate aminotransferase: Clinical features and biochemical characterization

Dindo, Mirco;Conter, Carolina;Montone, Rosa;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Primary Hyperoxaluria type I (PH1) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the AGXT gene encoding alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), a liver enzyme involved in the detoxification of glyoxylate, the failure of which results in accumulation of oxalate and kidney stones formation. The role of protein misfolding in the AGT deficit caused by most PH1-causing mutations is increasingly being recognized. In addition, the genetic background in which a mutation occurs is emerging as a critical risk factor for disease onset and/or severity. Based on these premises, in this study we have analyzed the clinical, biochemical and cellular effects of the p.Ile56Asn mutation, recently described in a PH1 patient, as a function of the residue at position 11, a hot-spot for both polymorphic (p.Pro11Leu) and pathogenic (p.Pro11Arg) mutations. We have found that the p.Ile56Asn mutation induces a structural defect mostly related to the apo-form of AGT. The effects are more pronounced when the substitution of Ile56 is combined with the p.Pro11Leu and, at higher degree, the p.Pro11Arg mutation. As compared with the non-pathogenic forms, AGT variants display reduced expression and activity in mammalian cells. Vitamin B6, a currently approved treatment for PH1, can overcome the effects of the p.Ile56Asn mutation only when it is associated with Pro at position 11. Our results provide a first proof that the genetic background influences the effects of PH1-causing mutations and the responsiveness to treatment and suggest that molecular and cellular studies can integrate clinical data to identify the best therapeutic strategy for PH1 patients.
2020
Enzyme deficit
Folding defect
Polymorphism
Rare disorders
Vitamin B6
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1023119
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