Background: The progressive aging of the population will dramatically increase the burden of dementia related to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders in the future. Because of the absence of drugs that can modify the neuropathological substrate of AD, research is focusing on the application of preemptive and disease-modifying strategies in the pre-symptomatic period of the disease. In this perspective, the identification of people with cognitive frailty (CF), i.e., those individuals with higher risk of developing dementia, on solid pathophysiological bases and with clear operational clinical criteria is of paramount importance. Objective/methods: This hypothesis paper reviews the current definitions of CF, presents and discusses some of their limitations, and proposes a framework for updating and improving the conceptual and operational definition of the CF construct. Results: The potential for reversibility of CF should be supported by the assessment of amyloid, tau, and neuronal damage biomarkers, especially in younger patients. Physical and cognitive components of frailty should be considered as separate entities, instead of part of a single macro-phenotype. CF should not be limited to the geriatric population, because trajectories of amyloid accumulation are supposed to start earlier than 65 years in AD. Operational criteria are needed to standardize assessment of CF. Conclusion: Based on the limitations of current CF definitions, we propose a revised one according to a multidimensional sub typing. This new definition might help stratifying CF patients for future trials to explore new lifestyle interventions or disease-modifying pharmacological strategies for AD and dementia.

Towards a redefinition of cognitive frailty

Mantovani, Elisa;Schena, Federico;Romanelli, Maria Grazia;Venturelli, Massimo;Tamburin, Stefano
2020-01-01

Abstract

Background: The progressive aging of the population will dramatically increase the burden of dementia related to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders in the future. Because of the absence of drugs that can modify the neuropathological substrate of AD, research is focusing on the application of preemptive and disease-modifying strategies in the pre-symptomatic period of the disease. In this perspective, the identification of people with cognitive frailty (CF), i.e., those individuals with higher risk of developing dementia, on solid pathophysiological bases and with clear operational clinical criteria is of paramount importance. Objective/methods: This hypothesis paper reviews the current definitions of CF, presents and discusses some of their limitations, and proposes a framework for updating and improving the conceptual and operational definition of the CF construct. Results: The potential for reversibility of CF should be supported by the assessment of amyloid, tau, and neuronal damage biomarkers, especially in younger patients. Physical and cognitive components of frailty should be considered as separate entities, instead of part of a single macro-phenotype. CF should not be limited to the geriatric population, because trajectories of amyloid accumulation are supposed to start earlier than 65 years in AD. Operational criteria are needed to standardize assessment of CF. Conclusion: Based on the limitations of current CF definitions, we propose a revised one according to a multidimensional sub typing. This new definition might help stratifying CF patients for future trials to explore new lifestyle interventions or disease-modifying pharmacological strategies for AD and dementia.
2020
biomarkers
cognitive frailty
dementia
frailty
mild cognitive impairment
neuropathology
subjective cognitive impairment
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1020000
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