At present, the analysis of diet and bladder cancer (BC) is mostly based on the intake of individual foods. The examination of food combinations provides a scope to deal with the complexity and unpredictability of the diet and aims to overcome the limitations of the study of nutrients and foods in isolation. This article aims to demonstrate the usability of supervised data mining methods to extract the food groups related to BC. In order to derive key food groups associated with BC risk, we applied the data mining technique C5.0 with 10-fold cross validation in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants (BLEND) study, including data from 18 case-control and 1 nested case-cohort study, compromising 8,320 BC cases out of 31,551 participants. Dietary data, on the 11 main food groups of the Eurocode 2 Core classification codebook and relevant non-diet data (i.e. sex, age and smoking status) were available. Primarily, five key food groups were extracted; in order of importance: beverages (non-milk); grains and grain products; vegetables and vegetable products; fats, oils and their products; meats and meat products were associated with BC risk. Since these food groups are corresponded with previously proposed BC related dietary factors, data mining seems to be a promising technique in the field of nutritional epidemiology and deserves further examination.
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