PD-1 blockade represents a major therapeutic avenue in anticancer immunotherapy. Delineating mechanisms of secondary resistance to this strategy is increasingly important. Here, we identified the deleterious role of signaling via the type I interferon (IFN) receptor in tumor and antigen presenting cells, that induced the expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), associated with intratumor accumulation of regulatory T cells (Treg) and myeloid cells and acquired resistance to anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Sustained IFN beta transcription was observed in resistant tumors, in turn inducing PD-L1 and NOS2 expression in both tumor and dendritic cells (DC). Whereas PD-L1 was not involved in secondary resistance to anti-PD-1 mAb, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of NOS2 maintained long-term control of tumors by PD-1 blockade, through reduction of Treg and DC activation. Resistance to immunotherapies, including anti-PD-1 mAb in melanoma patients, was also correlated with the induction of a type I IFN signature. Hence, the role of type I IFN in response to PD-1 blockade should be revisited as sustained type I IFN signaling may contribute to resistance to therapy.

Sustained Type I interferon signaling as a mechanism of resistance to PD-1 blockade

Ugel, Stefano;Marigo, Ilaria;Bronte, Vincenzo;
2019-01-01

Abstract

PD-1 blockade represents a major therapeutic avenue in anticancer immunotherapy. Delineating mechanisms of secondary resistance to this strategy is increasingly important. Here, we identified the deleterious role of signaling via the type I interferon (IFN) receptor in tumor and antigen presenting cells, that induced the expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), associated with intratumor accumulation of regulatory T cells (Treg) and myeloid cells and acquired resistance to anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Sustained IFN beta transcription was observed in resistant tumors, in turn inducing PD-L1 and NOS2 expression in both tumor and dendritic cells (DC). Whereas PD-L1 was not involved in secondary resistance to anti-PD-1 mAb, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of NOS2 maintained long-term control of tumors by PD-1 blockade, through reduction of Treg and DC activation. Resistance to immunotherapies, including anti-PD-1 mAb in melanoma patients, was also correlated with the induction of a type I IFN signature. Hence, the role of type I IFN in response to PD-1 blockade should be revisited as sustained type I IFN signaling may contribute to resistance to therapy.
Immunology
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1011107
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