Guanylate Cyclase activating protein 1 (GCAP1) mediates the Ca2+-dependent regulation of the retinal Guanylate Cyclase (GC) in photoreceptors, acting as a target inhibitor at high [Ca2+] and as an activator at low [Ca2+]. Recently, a novel missense mutation (G86R) was found in GUCA1A, the gene encoding for GCAP1, in patients diagnosed with cone-rod dystrophy. The G86R substitution was found to affect the flexibility of the hinge region connecting the N- and C-domains of GCAP1, resulting in decreased Ca2+-sensitivity and abnormally enhanced affinity for GC. Based on a structural model of GCAP1, here, we tested the hypothesis of a cation-π interaction between the positively charged R86 and the aromatic W94 as the main mechanism underlying the impaired activator-to-inhibitor conformational change. W94 was mutated to F or L, thus, resulting in the double mutants G86R+W94L/F. The double mutants showed minor structural and stability changes with respect to the single G86R mutant, as well as lower affinity for both Mg2+ and Ca2+, moreover, substitutions of W94 abolished "phase II" in Ca2+-titrations followed by intrinsic fluorescence. Interestingly, the presence of an aromatic residue in position 94 significantly increased the aggregation propensity of Ca2+-loaded GCAP1 variants. Finally, atomistic simulations of all GCAP1 variants in the presence of Ca2+ supported the presence of two cation-π interactions involving R86, which was found to act as a bridge between W94 and W21, thus, locking the hinge region in an activator-like conformation and resulting in the constitutive activation of the target under physiological conditions.

Constitutive activation of guanylate cyclase by the G86R GCAP1 variant is due to "locking" cation-π interactions that impair the activator-to-inhibitor structural transition

Marino, Valerio;Dell'Orco, Daniele
2020-01-01

Abstract

Guanylate Cyclase activating protein 1 (GCAP1) mediates the Ca2+-dependent regulation of the retinal Guanylate Cyclase (GC) in photoreceptors, acting as a target inhibitor at high [Ca2+] and as an activator at low [Ca2+]. Recently, a novel missense mutation (G86R) was found in GUCA1A, the gene encoding for GCAP1, in patients diagnosed with cone-rod dystrophy. The G86R substitution was found to affect the flexibility of the hinge region connecting the N- and C-domains of GCAP1, resulting in decreased Ca2+-sensitivity and abnormally enhanced affinity for GC. Based on a structural model of GCAP1, here, we tested the hypothesis of a cation-π interaction between the positively charged R86 and the aromatic W94 as the main mechanism underlying the impaired activator-to-inhibitor conformational change. W94 was mutated to F or L, thus, resulting in the double mutants G86R+W94L/F. The double mutants showed minor structural and stability changes with respect to the single G86R mutant, as well as lower affinity for both Mg2+ and Ca2+, moreover, substitutions of W94 abolished "phase II" in Ca2+-titrations followed by intrinsic fluorescence. Interestingly, the presence of an aromatic residue in position 94 significantly increased the aggregation propensity of Ca2+-loaded GCAP1 variants. Finally, atomistic simulations of all GCAP1 variants in the presence of Ca2+ supported the presence of two cation-π interactions involving R86, which was found to act as a bridge between W94 and W21, thus, locking the hinge region in an activator-like conformation and resulting in the constitutive activation of the target under physiological conditions.
2020
cone dystrophy; guanylate cyclase-activating protein 1; neuronal calcium sensor; retinal guanylate cyclase
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
ijms-21-00752-v2.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: CC BY 4.0 Publisher's version
Tipologia: Versione dell'editore
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 5.38 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
5.38 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1010204
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 3
  • Scopus 7
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 6
social impact