Melanoma is a lethal tumor because of its severe metastatic potential, and serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf inhibitors (BRAFi) are used in patients harboring BRAF-mutation. Unfortunately, BRAFi induce resistance. Therefore, we tested the activity of onconase (ONC), a cytotoxic RNase variant, against BRAFi-resistant cells to re-establish the efficacy of the chemotherapy. To do so, an A375 dabrafenib-resistant (A375DR) melanoma cell subpopulation was selected and its behavior compared with that of parental (A375P) cells by crystal violet, 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) western blot measurements. Then, nuclear p65 Nuclear Factor kappaB (NF-κB) and IκB kinases-α/β (IKK) phosphorylation levels were measured. Gelatin zymography was performed to evaluate metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) activity. In addition, assays to measure migration, invasion and soft agar colony formation were performed to examine the tumor cell dissemination propensity. ONC affected the total viability and the proliferation rate of both A375P and A375DR cell subpopulations in a dose-dependent manner and also induced apoptotic cell death. Among its pleiotropic effects, ONC reduced nuclear p65 NF-κB amount and IKK phosphorylation level, as well as MMP2 activity in both cell subpopulations. ONC decreased cell colony formation, migration, and invasion capability. Notably, it induced apoptosis and inhibited colony formation and invasiveness more extensively in A375DR than in A375P cells. In conclusion, ONC successfully counteracts melanoma malignancy especially in BRAFi-resistant cells and could become a tool against melanoma recurrence.
|Titolo:||Onconase Restores Cytotoxicity in Dabrafenib-Resistant A375 Human Melanoma Cells and Affects Cell Migration, Invasion and Colony Formation Capability|
GOTTE, Giovanni (Corresponding)
MENEGAZZI, Marta Vittoria (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 Articolo in Rivista|