Diffuse gliomas are defined on the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene (IDH) mutational mutational status. The most frequent IDH mutation is IDH1 R132H, which is detectable by immunohistochemistry; other IDH mutations are rare (10%). IDH mutant gliomas have better prognosis. Further, IDH wild-type low-grade (II/III) gliomas have clinical behaviors similar to those of glioblastoma (GBM) and it was suggested that they are submitted to similar post-surgical treatment. The incidence of IDH mutant gliomas (2%) and that of GBMs with non-canonical IDH mutations (< 1%) are very low in patients ≥ 55 years. For this reason, it was suggested that immunohistochemistry against IDH1 R132H is sufficient to classify GBM as IDH wild-type in this age group. However, no indication was provided for IDH mutational testing in low-grade diffuse gliomas. To address this issue, 273 diffuse gliomas were tested for IDH1 R132H immunohistochemistry. 2/4 diffuse astrocytomas (DAs), 4/9 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), 2/256 GBMs, and 4/4 oligodendrogliomas had positive staining. No other IDH mutations were found in immuno-negative low-grade cases by DNA sequencing. To validate our findings, we considered 311 diffuse gliomas in patients ≥ 55 years in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Fifty-five out of 311 gliomas had IDH R132H mutations (9/16 DAs; 8/48 AAs; 3/211 GBMs; 35/36 oligodendrogliomas), one DA, and one oligodendroglioma had other IDH mutations. IDH mutant gliomas had significantly higher frequency of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation (P = 0.0008) and longer overall survival (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, low-grade gliomas are a minor part of gliomas (117/584) in patients ≥ 55 years, albeit they represent most IDH mutant gliomas in this age group (64/69 cases). IDH non-canonical mutations can be found in immunonegative low-grade gliomas (2/54). In view of its significance for prognosis and therapeutic management, our results suggest that IDH mutational status is assessed in all diffuse gliomas in patients ≥ 55 years by immunohistochemistry, followed by IDH sequencing in low-grade immunonegative cases.

Diffuse gliomas in patients aged 55 years or over: A suggestion for IDH mutation testing

Barresi V
;
Eccher A;Simbolo M;Cappellini R;Ricciardi GK;Calabria F;Cancedda M;Mazzarotto R;Bonetti B;Sala F;Ghimenton C;Scarpa A
2020

Abstract

Diffuse gliomas are defined on the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene (IDH) mutational mutational status. The most frequent IDH mutation is IDH1 R132H, which is detectable by immunohistochemistry; other IDH mutations are rare (10%). IDH mutant gliomas have better prognosis. Further, IDH wild-type low-grade (II/III) gliomas have clinical behaviors similar to those of glioblastoma (GBM) and it was suggested that they are submitted to similar post-surgical treatment. The incidence of IDH mutant gliomas (2%) and that of GBMs with non-canonical IDH mutations (< 1%) are very low in patients ≥ 55 years. For this reason, it was suggested that immunohistochemistry against IDH1 R132H is sufficient to classify GBM as IDH wild-type in this age group. However, no indication was provided for IDH mutational testing in low-grade diffuse gliomas. To address this issue, 273 diffuse gliomas were tested for IDH1 R132H immunohistochemistry. 2/4 diffuse astrocytomas (DAs), 4/9 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), 2/256 GBMs, and 4/4 oligodendrogliomas had positive staining. No other IDH mutations were found in immuno-negative low-grade cases by DNA sequencing. To validate our findings, we considered 311 diffuse gliomas in patients ≥ 55 years in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Fifty-five out of 311 gliomas had IDH R132H mutations (9/16 DAs; 8/48 AAs; 3/211 GBMs; 35/36 oligodendrogliomas), one DA, and one oligodendroglioma had other IDH mutations. IDH mutant gliomas had significantly higher frequency of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation (P = 0.0008) and longer overall survival (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, low-grade gliomas are a minor part of gliomas (117/584) in patients ≥ 55 years, albeit they represent most IDH mutant gliomas in this age group (64/69 cases). IDH non-canonical mutations can be found in immunonegative low-grade gliomas (2/54). In view of its significance for prognosis and therapeutic management, our results suggest that IDH mutational status is assessed in all diffuse gliomas in patients ≥ 55 years by immunohistochemistry, followed by IDH sequencing in low-grade immunonegative cases.
IDH; glioma; immunohistochemistry; prognosis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1005005
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