There is strong behavioral evidence that placebo and nocebo effects can influence aspects of motor performance like speed, force, and resistance to fatigue in athletes and non-athletes alike. These behavioral studies were essential for extending experimental investigation of the placebo and nocebo effects from the pain to the motor domain and to reveal how verbal suggestions and experiential learning are involved in shaping modulatory systems and related behavioral responses. However, the neural underpinnings of these effects in the motor domain are still largely unknown. Studies in healthy subjects demonstrated that the placebo-induced enhancement of force is associated with increased activity in the corticospinal system and that the placebo-induced reduction of fatigue can be disclosed by recording the readiness potential, an electrophysiological sign of movement preparation. Further evidence derives from studies in patients with Parkinson's disease that have directly demonstrated that placebo-induced improvements in motor symptoms are related to changes in subcortical neural firing activity and dopamine release. Future investigations are needed to better clarify the complex neural architecture underpinning the placebo and nocebo effects in the motor domain.
|Titolo:||Chapter 12: Modulation of the motor system by placebo and nocebo effects|
FIORIO, Mirta (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||02.01 Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio)|