Polysemy is a formal property of a vocable, which is such that it contains more than one semantically related lexical units. Identifying the polysemic structure of vocables in a given language is a key issue in theoretical semantics and lexicography, since polysemy is at the heart of the internal structure of natural language systems. The purpose of this research is twofold. It targets the development of a contrastive approach to polysemy in order to implement a set of vocabulary learning strategies. The first chapter aims at reviewing the current state of the art in the field of polysemy. Where the term polysemy was introduced during the late XX century, the concept has its roots in the Aristotelian tradition and stimulated an open debate between the various approaches, until recent research literature. At present, there are several points of dis- agreement both among polysemy theories and lexicographical methods. The second chapter is intended to present the theoretical and methodological framework that underpins the study : the Explanatory and Combinatorial Lexicology, which is the lexical branch of the Meaning-Text Theory. Explanatory and Combinatorial Lexicology develops a lexicographical model of polysemy, based on a well-defined series of semantic and syntactic criteria. Each lexical unit of a vocable — a complex cluster of semantic, formal and combinatorial properties — is disambiguated by defining its semantic actants and its lexical relations. The set of paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations is translated in the system of lexical functions. One of the more recent developments of the Explanatory and Combinatorial Lexicology, is the French Lexical Network, an ongoing project that targets the construction of a full-scale lexical resource for the French language. It displaces the lexicographical description from a paper format to an electronic environment, through the use of the lexicographical editor Dicet. The French Lexical Network deepens the theoretical representation of polysemy, by establishing a typology of co-polysemy links. Furthermore, the French Lexical Network represents a lexicographic prototype, which can be applied to other languages. Some tween projects, developed on the French model, already exist for Russian and Spanish. Similarly, a lexicographical ressource for the Italian language, the Italian Lexical Network, is developed within the framework of this study. The third section of the study provides a polysemy-based contrastive analysis of taste vocabulary in French and Italian. As a preliminary step, a priming wordlist is drawn up of 4 704 Italian vocables. Subsequently, taste-related vocables (i.e. all the vocables which are semantically included in the lexical field of taste) are extracted and analysed. Data analysis mainly suggest two different trends : synonymous polysemes, two vocables which share the same meaning at all levels of their polysemic structure and which establish the same copolysemy links ; crossing polysemes, two vocables which intersect at some points of their polysemic structures. A contrastive polysemy approach can be exploited for pedagogical purposes. This is the aim of the last chapter, which consists in a three-session module designed for B1 students of French as a second language. Throughout a series of didactic activities, the student is expected to improve the quality of its lexical knowledge and to nip lexico-semantic mistakes in the bud.
|Titolo:||La polysémie en français et en italien : approche contrastive et retombées didactiques|
Lisi, Marianna (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||07.13 Doctoral Thesis|