For cyclic sport activities (on land and in water) the energy expenditure of physical activity (PAEE) can be accurately measured when the energy cost (C) of that form of locomotion is known. C depends on the speed and the mode of locomotion and is calculated by the ratio: E’/v where E’ is metabolic power (derived from aerobic and anaerobic energy sources) and v is the progression speed. C of a given form of locomotion, and at a given speed, depends also on the factors that affect mechanical work (W) and locomotion efficiency (ηL). In this chapter the determinants of C in land locomotion will be presented and discussed with a particular focus on walking, running and cycling.
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