The energy cost per unit distance (i. e. the economy of swimming, C) is given by the ratio / v where is the net (above resting) metabolic power and v is the swimming speed. The contribution of the aerobic and anaerobic energy sources to in swimming competitions differs according to the distance covered; it is independent of swimming style, gender or skill and depends essentially upon the duration of the exercise. In swimming, C increases with the speed with a non linear function; for a given speed, C is the lowest for the front crawl, followed by the backstroke, the butterfly and the breaststroke. C is essentially determined by the hydrodynamic resistance (Wd): the higher Wd, the higher C; and by the propelling efficiency (ηP): the higher ηP the lower C. Hence, all factors influencing Wd and/or ηP will result in proportional changes in C. The concepts of economy and efficiency are strictly related; hence, this chapter is also devoted to an analysis of the efficiencies in swimming; a summary of the values reported in the literature is also presented from a “historical point of view”. Last but not least the factors setting performance ( max and C) are briefly reviewed in view of a proper planning of swim training.

Swimming economy (energy cost) and efficiency

ZAMPARO, Paola
2011

Abstract

The energy cost per unit distance (i. e. the economy of swimming, C) is given by the ratio / v where is the net (above resting) metabolic power and v is the swimming speed. The contribution of the aerobic and anaerobic energy sources to in swimming competitions differs according to the distance covered; it is independent of swimming style, gender or skill and depends essentially upon the duration of the exercise. In swimming, C increases with the speed with a non linear function; for a given speed, C is the lowest for the front crawl, followed by the backstroke, the butterfly and the breaststroke. C is essentially determined by the hydrodynamic resistance (Wd): the higher Wd, the higher C; and by the propelling efficiency (ηP): the higher ηP the lower C. Hence, all factors influencing Wd and/or ηP will result in proportional changes in C. The concepts of economy and efficiency are strictly related; hence, this chapter is also devoted to an analysis of the efficiencies in swimming; a summary of the values reported in the literature is also presented from a “historical point of view”. Last but not least the factors setting performance ( max and C) are briefly reviewed in view of a proper planning of swim training.
9781614707417
energy expenditure; swimming economy; swimming efficiency; best performance times.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/428804
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