Alcuni anni or sono i critici Casasús Garí e Núñez Ladevéze proposero il neologismo “Giornalistica” (“Periodística”) per riferirsi a quel metodo d’analisi che fino ad allora aveva ricevuto svariati appellativi, da “Redazione giornalistica” a “Letteratura giornalistica”, ai più antiquati “Eloquenza giornalistica” e “Arte del giornalista”.1 Potremmo dire che ognuna di queste definizioni è esatta ma parziale, ossia copre singolarmente solo una delle sfaccettature che compongono il materiale emerografico: la stesura del testo, i contenuti della pubblicazione, le strategie comunicative e la qualità del prodotto. La Giornalistica, invece, si propone di studiare da un punto di vista storico, attuale e prospettico i fenomeni e gli elementi che concorrono a formare il “sistema mediatico”: la produzione, la trasmissione, la ricezione e la trasformazione sociale del messaggio. Per lungo tempo, il rapporto tra giornalismo e letteratura è stato osservato più con metodi impressionisti che con rigore scientifico. Le ragioni principali possono riassumersi in due punti: da una parte, storici e critici della letteratura non davano molta importanza alla congiunzione tra il lavoro giornalistico e quello letterario; dall’altra, gli specialisti dell’informazione concentravano l’attenzione sugli aspetti più vincolati all’atto comunicativo. Quale, dunque, il metodo migliore per studiare il materiale emerografico? A mio modo di vedere, l’analisi comparativa delle due componenti (cultura giornalistica e cultura letteraria) può portare notevoli frutti. Tale metodo si prefigge di mettere in relazione, diacronicamente e sincronicamente, i temi e i modi propri della cultura giornalistica e di quella prettamente letteraria o, se accettiamo la proposta di Albert Chillón, un’analisi “comparativa giornalistico-letteraria” deve contemplare parallelamente un approccio di tipo storiografico, tematico e formale.

Since their birth, newspapers have been an instrument divided between a vocation – the information – and a status – they are part of the culture industry, in terms coined by Adorno and Horkheimer. The duplicity of their nature underlines the difference with the book, the other great symbol of the written culture; in our minds, books represent the Literature, the utmost and lasting expression of the human creativity, while newspapers are considered as an ephemeral and functional representation of the reality that they point out. This presumption is very constrictive because, as I tried to explain in my thesis, newspapers can be an example of great information as well as original literature. The 70’s have been the “golden age” of investigative journalism: we only have to recall the Watergate scandal, exposed by by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward in their articles published in 1972 the Washington Post. Triunfo (Valencia, 1946 – Madrid, 1982), the magazine I analysed in my dissertation, gets into the same path, but with a macroscopic difference: the magazine founded by José Ángel Ezcurra y Carrillo became the point of reference of the Spanish progressive culture during the last part of the long existence of the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, started in 1939, at the end of the Civil war (1936-1939), and finished only with the death of the Caudillo (1975). In the years I considered (1970-1978), Triunfo worked to put into practice the right strategy to fight with the arms at its hands against the censored and diluted Spanish reality. My aim was to identify and analyse the communicative strategies that Triunfo used to convey its messages, particularly in cultural and artistic contents. Literature was an instrument of protest and of action with concrete results in everyday life: this is one of the function that seemed to be assigned to the literary sections of the magazine. In order to avoid the dangers of the rigid censorship in matters of economy and interior policy, Triunfo used the cultural channel to deal with those subjects (freedom, democracy, women and homosexual rights, ecology, countercultures, etc.) that couldn’t be treated directly by the Spanish public opinion. The thesis is divided into three parts: 1. Definition of the “Periodística” and of the literary-journalistic comparative method. 2. History of Triunfo: commented bibliography, evolution of the magazine and comment on the editorial and contributors’ staff (from Manuel Vázquez Montalbán to Alfonso Sastre, from Julio Cortázar to Gabriel García Márquez, from Alberto Moravia to Jean-Paul Sartre). 3. Definition of the concept of Culture in the pages of Triunfo and analysis of the literary contents (narrative, poetry, dramatic representation and literary critic). After a focusing study of the magazine’s cultural matters, I can state that Triunfo was able to achieve its aim, that was helping to destroy the Francoist architecture from the inside, undermining the dictatorial construction with such weapons as information, education and, last but not least, of Culture.

Las páginas literarias de “Triunfo” del tardofranquismo al comienzo de la Transición (1970-1978).

BELLOMI, Paola
2009-01-01

Abstract

Alcuni anni or sono i critici Casasús Garí e Núñez Ladevéze proposero il neologismo “Giornalistica” (“Periodística”) per riferirsi a quel metodo d’analisi che fino ad allora aveva ricevuto svariati appellativi, da “Redazione giornalistica” a “Letteratura giornalistica”, ai più antiquati “Eloquenza giornalistica” e “Arte del giornalista”.1 Potremmo dire che ognuna di queste definizioni è esatta ma parziale, ossia copre singolarmente solo una delle sfaccettature che compongono il materiale emerografico: la stesura del testo, i contenuti della pubblicazione, le strategie comunicative e la qualità del prodotto. La Giornalistica, invece, si propone di studiare da un punto di vista storico, attuale e prospettico i fenomeni e gli elementi che concorrono a formare il “sistema mediatico”: la produzione, la trasmissione, la ricezione e la trasformazione sociale del messaggio. Per lungo tempo, il rapporto tra giornalismo e letteratura è stato osservato più con metodi impressionisti che con rigore scientifico. Le ragioni principali possono riassumersi in due punti: da una parte, storici e critici della letteratura non davano molta importanza alla congiunzione tra il lavoro giornalistico e quello letterario; dall’altra, gli specialisti dell’informazione concentravano l’attenzione sugli aspetti più vincolati all’atto comunicativo. Quale, dunque, il metodo migliore per studiare il materiale emerografico? A mio modo di vedere, l’analisi comparativa delle due componenti (cultura giornalistica e cultura letteraria) può portare notevoli frutti. Tale metodo si prefigge di mettere in relazione, diacronicamente e sincronicamente, i temi e i modi propri della cultura giornalistica e di quella prettamente letteraria o, se accettiamo la proposta di Albert Chillón, un’analisi “comparativa giornalistico-letteraria” deve contemplare parallelamente un approccio di tipo storiografico, tematico e formale.
Triunfo; riviste letterarie spagnole; secolo XX
Since their birth, newspapers have been an instrument divided between a vocation – the information – and a status – they are part of the culture industry, in terms coined by Adorno and Horkheimer. The duplicity of their nature underlines the difference with the book, the other great symbol of the written culture; in our minds, books represent the Literature, the utmost and lasting expression of the human creativity, while newspapers are considered as an ephemeral and functional representation of the reality that they point out. This presumption is very constrictive because, as I tried to explain in my thesis, newspapers can be an example of great information as well as original literature. The 70’s have been the “golden age” of investigative journalism: we only have to recall the Watergate scandal, exposed by by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward in their articles published in 1972 the Washington Post. Triunfo (Valencia, 1946 – Madrid, 1982), the magazine I analysed in my dissertation, gets into the same path, but with a macroscopic difference: the magazine founded by José Ángel Ezcurra y Carrillo became the point of reference of the Spanish progressive culture during the last part of the long existence of the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, started in 1939, at the end of the Civil war (1936-1939), and finished only with the death of the Caudillo (1975). In the years I considered (1970-1978), Triunfo worked to put into practice the right strategy to fight with the arms at its hands against the censored and diluted Spanish reality. My aim was to identify and analyse the communicative strategies that Triunfo used to convey its messages, particularly in cultural and artistic contents. Literature was an instrument of protest and of action with concrete results in everyday life: this is one of the function that seemed to be assigned to the literary sections of the magazine. In order to avoid the dangers of the rigid censorship in matters of economy and interior policy, Triunfo used the cultural channel to deal with those subjects (freedom, democracy, women and homosexual rights, ecology, countercultures, etc.) that couldn’t be treated directly by the Spanish public opinion. The thesis is divided into three parts: 1. Definition of the “Periodística” and of the literary-journalistic comparative method. 2. History of Triunfo: commented bibliography, evolution of the magazine and comment on the editorial and contributors’ staff (from Manuel Vázquez Montalbán to Alfonso Sastre, from Julio Cortázar to Gabriel García Márquez, from Alberto Moravia to Jean-Paul Sartre). 3. Definition of the concept of Culture in the pages of Triunfo and analysis of the literary contents (narrative, poetry, dramatic representation and literary critic). After a focusing study of the magazine’s cultural matters, I can state that Triunfo was able to achieve its aim, that was helping to destroy the Francoist architecture from the inside, undermining the dictatorial construction with such weapons as information, education and, last but not least, of Culture.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Bellomi Paola - Tesi dottorato - Triunfo.pdf

non disponibili

Tipologia: Tesi di dottorato
Licenza: Accesso ristretto
Dimensione 2.35 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
2.35 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/337396
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact