Cardiovascular diseases exact human and economic costs that are growing year after year. A great deal of evidence points towards the concept that physical activity provides protection and that sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for these pathologies. The benefits of doing regular exercise include a decreased incidence of myocardial infarction and an increased chances of survival after coronary events. Furthermore, exercise is a well-established and useful tool in cardiac rehabilitation. Moreover, regular exercise is associated with the reduction of many risk factors related to cardiovascular pathologies, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, and insulin resistance. Finally, exercise can improve the functions of the vascular endothelium, which regulates some key functions of the body homeostasis such as platelets aggregation, immune responses, vascular permeability, and vascular tone. For all these reasons the knowledge of the mechanism underlying the effects of exercise on the circulation of healthy and disease subjects is fundamental for both the prevention and the treatment of the cardiovascular pathologies. The present book will review the latest news about some physiological and physio-pathological aspects related to the cardiovascular apparatus and physical activity. Several topics such as the transport of oxygen from air to muscle during effort, the regulation of circulation and the cardiovascular adjustments during exercise and recovery, the heart, coronary, and endothelium adaptations after physical training, the cardiovascular modifications during diving, the exercise as a therapy for heart failure will be discussed in the light of the most recent scientific literature.
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