Over the last decades, the prevalence of chronic health conditions and disabilities among children rose steadily, thanks to medical advances in both treating the primary condition and managing its complications. The improved long-term survival rates led to persistently high rates of pediatric chronic health conditions, which are often burdened with limitation in daily activity and dependence on medication, special diets, medical technology, assistive devices, and specialized staff. Therefore, children with complex chronic conditions are a frail population who generally need healthcare services beyond what is usual for healthy children. Indeed, their health issues often require specialized and continuing care. Such specifcities expose this population to become highly vulnerable. The healthcare services are generally poorly effcient in delivering continuity of care for chronic health conditions. As a matter of fact, healthcare services are mainly focused on delivering urgent care, whereas the management of children with chronic health problems is still suboptimal. Poor and disadvantaged children are at even greater risk, with an increased need for hospitalization and high costs for the healthcare system as a whole.
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