Strongyloidiasis is the infection caused by soil-transmitted nematodes of Strongyloides species, infecting humans and some animals. Strongyloides stercoralis is the species with most clinical and epidemiological relevance in humans and dogs, due to its high prevalence and its capacity of inducing a life-threatening hyperinfection. Diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is challenging, due to the absence of a single reference standard test with high sensitivity and specificity, which also hampers the estimation of the accuracy of other diagnostic tests. In this chapter, we review the deployment and performance of the parasitological, immunological, molecular tests for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in humans and in dogs. Further, we comment the available evidence from genotyping studies that have addressed the zoonotic potential of S. stercoralis. Finally, we discuss the use of different diagnostic methods in relation to the purpose (i.e., screening, individual diagnosis, inclusion in a clinical trial) and the setting (endemic/non-endemic areas) and report the accuracy figures reported by systematic reviews on either parasitological, serological or molecular techniques published in literature.

The diagnosis of human and companion animal Strongyloides stercoralis infection: Challenges and solutions. A scoping review (Chapter One)

Bisoffi, Zeno
2022

Abstract

Strongyloidiasis is the infection caused by soil-transmitted nematodes of Strongyloides species, infecting humans and some animals. Strongyloides stercoralis is the species with most clinical and epidemiological relevance in humans and dogs, due to its high prevalence and its capacity of inducing a life-threatening hyperinfection. Diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is challenging, due to the absence of a single reference standard test with high sensitivity and specificity, which also hampers the estimation of the accuracy of other diagnostic tests. In this chapter, we review the deployment and performance of the parasitological, immunological, molecular tests for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in humans and in dogs. Further, we comment the available evidence from genotyping studies that have addressed the zoonotic potential of S. stercoralis. Finally, we discuss the use of different diagnostic methods in relation to the purpose (i.e., screening, individual diagnosis, inclusion in a clinical trial) and the setting (endemic/non-endemic areas) and report the accuracy figures reported by systematic reviews on either parasitological, serological or molecular techniques published in literature.
9780323993968
Diagnosis; Human; Strongyloides; Strongyloidiasis; Test; Veterinary
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1074806
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