Pulmonary infections represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and require prompt antimicrobial treatment. The correct choice of an empirical regimen is paramount in managing LRTIs due to the difficulty in obtaining a microbial diagnosis. Classic antimicrobials used in the treatment of pulmonary infections include β-lactams (with or without β-lactamase inhibitors), macrolides, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. Vancomycin and linezolid are the antimicrobials of choice for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia caused by MRSA. New compounds have been studied to target pulmonary infections, including those caused by pathogens that are resistant to commonly used antimicrobials. A broad spectrum of activity, penetration into lung tissue, good tolerability, and availability of both oral and intravenous formulations represent key features of the compounds used in the treatment of LRTIs. In this chapter, we summarise the characteristics of commonly used molecules for the treatment of pulmonary infections in adult patients and discuss new options for their treatment.
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