It is widely recognized that organized sport and physical activity in general play an important role in the psychophysical, cognitive, affective, social, and cultural development of children and youth. In the era of globalization, intercultural interactions and exchanges between different people and cultures are becoming more frequent. Physical activity in general, but in particular physical education and organized sport have a significant role in the promotion of intercultural dialogue, interaction, and integration processes, adaptive multicultural environments for migrant children and their families. Body language, games, sports, and social interactions in physical activity contexts vary widely across ethnicities. This variation between different cultures poses new challenges for adults, but it might create an unique potentially educative setting for practicing social competences that are required for effective interactions with individuals from diverse cultures (Kouli, Papaioannou, 2009; Sparks, Verner, 1995). Parents, teachers, and coaches that operate in intercultural environments can teach children and youth the precious value of differences, contrasting discriminations phenomena. A central task is to teach children and youth respect for all differences (not only ethnical, but also gender, age, disability, sexual orientation, religious differences), promoting and developing a positive climate not only for native, but also for second and third generations migrants who face cultural dynamics as new challenges if compared with previous generations (Gaskins, 1999; Kerwin, Ponterotto, Jackson, Harris, 1993; Shih, Sanchez, 2005). Sport contributions to intercultural integration have been studied according to theoretical (e.g., Birrell, 1989; Chu, Griffey, 1985), perceptual-cognitive (e.g., Anshel, Sailes, 1990; Nixon, 1996), motivational (e.g., Gano-Overway, Duda, 1999; Yan, McCullagh, 2004), and applied and professional perspectives (e.g., Martens, Mobley, Zizzi, 2000; Naoi, Watson, Deaner, Sato, 2011). Only recently, scholars examined how sport participation may impact the identity development of multi-racial individuals (Stanley, Robbins, 2011). Social Identity Theory (Tajfel, 1978) provides a theoretical framework to study how sport can facilitate identity construction, starting from social differentiation and socialization processes. Although family is thought to be the primary socializing agent, it is possible that teammates and coaches may offer a socializing influence as well to personal identity and ethnic identity development (Anglin, Wade, 2007). Personal identity represents an overall self-portrait and it may include the ethnic identity, that refers more specifically to a multidimensional construct that includes a sense of group membership along with the attitudes, emotions, and mannerisms associated with a particular ethnical group (Bernal, Knight, 1993; Phinney, 1990). It appears that multi-racial individuals in general, but above all young migrants’ children and grandchildren may struggle with the risk of experiencing social isolation and discriminations (Brown, 1995). Social Identity Theory explains how people belonging to social devalued and minority groups can maintain a positive self-esteem also through positive sport participation in a multi-cultural context. Although the literature on cultural diversities in sport psychology is in its infancy (Gill, 2007; Gill, Kamphoff, 2010), researches offer useful intervention strategies not only for practitioners, but also for teachers, parents, and coaches who might create inclusive and educative contexts promoting intercultural dialogue and exchange through sporting and physical activities.

Integrazione e identità: il contributo dell’attività motoria e sportiva

Francesca Vitali
2014-01-01

Abstract

It is widely recognized that organized sport and physical activity in general play an important role in the psychophysical, cognitive, affective, social, and cultural development of children and youth. In the era of globalization, intercultural interactions and exchanges between different people and cultures are becoming more frequent. Physical activity in general, but in particular physical education and organized sport have a significant role in the promotion of intercultural dialogue, interaction, and integration processes, adaptive multicultural environments for migrant children and their families. Body language, games, sports, and social interactions in physical activity contexts vary widely across ethnicities. This variation between different cultures poses new challenges for adults, but it might create an unique potentially educative setting for practicing social competences that are required for effective interactions with individuals from diverse cultures (Kouli, Papaioannou, 2009; Sparks, Verner, 1995). Parents, teachers, and coaches that operate in intercultural environments can teach children and youth the precious value of differences, contrasting discriminations phenomena. A central task is to teach children and youth respect for all differences (not only ethnical, but also gender, age, disability, sexual orientation, religious differences), promoting and developing a positive climate not only for native, but also for second and third generations migrants who face cultural dynamics as new challenges if compared with previous generations (Gaskins, 1999; Kerwin, Ponterotto, Jackson, Harris, 1993; Shih, Sanchez, 2005). Sport contributions to intercultural integration have been studied according to theoretical (e.g., Birrell, 1989; Chu, Griffey, 1985), perceptual-cognitive (e.g., Anshel, Sailes, 1990; Nixon, 1996), motivational (e.g., Gano-Overway, Duda, 1999; Yan, McCullagh, 2004), and applied and professional perspectives (e.g., Martens, Mobley, Zizzi, 2000; Naoi, Watson, Deaner, Sato, 2011). Only recently, scholars examined how sport participation may impact the identity development of multi-racial individuals (Stanley, Robbins, 2011). Social Identity Theory (Tajfel, 1978) provides a theoretical framework to study how sport can facilitate identity construction, starting from social differentiation and socialization processes. Although family is thought to be the primary socializing agent, it is possible that teammates and coaches may offer a socializing influence as well to personal identity and ethnic identity development (Anglin, Wade, 2007). Personal identity represents an overall self-portrait and it may include the ethnic identity, that refers more specifically to a multidimensional construct that includes a sense of group membership along with the attitudes, emotions, and mannerisms associated with a particular ethnical group (Bernal, Knight, 1993; Phinney, 1990). It appears that multi-racial individuals in general, but above all young migrants’ children and grandchildren may struggle with the risk of experiencing social isolation and discriminations (Brown, 1995). Social Identity Theory explains how people belonging to social devalued and minority groups can maintain a positive self-esteem also through positive sport participation in a multi-cultural context. Although the literature on cultural diversities in sport psychology is in its infancy (Gill, 2007; Gill, Kamphoff, 2010), researches offer useful intervention strategies not only for practitioners, but also for teachers, parents, and coaches who might create inclusive and educative contexts promoting intercultural dialogue and exchange through sporting and physical activities.
9788890790027
Sport
Cultural integration
Identity
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1040054
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