Over the past 15 years, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) has established itself as an important clinical discipline. It aims, first, to prevent neurological deficits induced by surgery and, second, to predict functional outcome. IONM also documents the moment when injury to the neural pathways, if any, occurs. This last aspect, besides its medicolegal implications, retains educational value for young neurosurgeons. Nowadays, IONM is considered of great value during neurosurgical procedures in functionally eloquent areas of the nervous system, especially in pediatric neurosurgery.
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