This chapter clarifies why adult education is the most complex segment of lifelong learning markets on which policy can intervene, thus the difficulty of regulating it within multi-level governance systems like the European Union (EU). Summarising the main results of the empirical studies presented in this volume, this chapter argues that regulatory politics and wealth redistribution are central for the EU to influence national lifelong learning markets through strategic policy coordination. Although the evidence brought together point to a hybrid compensation-comprehensive strategy affecting the development of (at least some segments of) national lifelong learning markets, the chapter concludes that more research is needed on the effects of particular governance mechanisms and policy instruments to fully appreciate how EU institutions contribute to lifelong learning markets development.
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